In 2015 we commissioned a research report to determine:
We looked at a range of world-renowned early childhood frameworks, including:
England: The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS)
New Zealand: Te Whàriki
Singapore: Nuturing Early Learners
Sweden: Läroplan Förskolan 98
Article 29: Goals of Education
Education must develop every child’s personality, talents and abilities to the full. It must encourage the child’s respect for human rights, as well as respect for their parents, their own and other cultures, and the environment
Article 31: Leisure, Play and Culture
Every child has the right to relax, play and take part in a wide range of cultural and artistic activities.
Economist recognise that investment in early childhood education = future returns:
Educationalists also recognise that high quality early childhood education results in gains for individuals, society and the world.
• Research indicates that genes provide the initial plan for the brain’s architecture, but experiences shape it.*
*Harvard’s Center on the Developing Child (http://developingchild.harvard.edu/science/key-concepts/brain-architecture/)
The IEYC is an innovative research-based toolkit, recognising global best- practice and the developmental needs of 2-5 year olds. It supports key areas of learning through holistic enquiry and play-based approaches encompassing all curriculum areas including personal, social and emotional development.
There are eight Learning Principles that underpin all practice in the IEYC, developed from our research report findings.
This film features national play experts Sue Palmer and Tim Gill; and chief executive of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
SOURCE: London Borough of Hounslow YouTube channel(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_-1O_rBLPU)
All IEYC learning and development is underpinned by a set of four Learning Strands.
Each Learning Strand provides descriptions of what children will experience and learn about through contextualised activities woven into IEYC units of learning.
IEYC Learning Strands fall into two distinct phases of learning and development:
Learning Strand Phase A:
describes learning experiences with the youngest children in mind.
Learning Strand Phase B:
describes learning experiences that provide more of a challenge.
The IEYC believes that children should have experiences which are both appealing to them and developmentally appropriate.
This means that at times, a combination of both Phase A and B learning experiences may be appropriate for some children, whilst at other times their interests and developmental needs may fall specifically into either Phase A or B.
For children requiring more of a challenge, Phase A tasks may be helpful to consolidate previous learning and Phase B tasks will support new learning.
The IEYC Learning Outcomes have been developed to help guide children’s learning and development and support reflective teaching practices.
In this way, the IEYC Learning Outcomes contribute to the evaluation of and planning for personalised learning.
The IEYC suggests that by the end of the curriculum, children will have typically developed knowledge and an increasing understanding of specific aspects of learning and development, and the skills of being able to demonstrate learning and development in practical ways.
There will be differences in when and how learning takes place, and when children can demonstrate what they know and what they are able to do.
We believe that it is more important to focus on IEYC Learning Principle 2: Children should be supported to learn and develop at their own unique pace, in conjunction with the other seven IEYC Learning Principles, rather than to focus merely on achievement alone.
The IEYC process of learning captures children’s natural curiosity as a starting point and within the proper environment balances child-initiated and teacher-guided learning.
An Entry Point should be planned in a way that makes it possible for teachers to observe, talk to children and capture each child’s curiosity so that interests can be developed as the IEYC unit of learning progresses.
The process should continue as the IEYC unit of learning evolves; it requires teachers to observe, listen, question and reflect on what children are interested in. Capturing a picture of what children are curious to explore and learn about is essential to planning a learning environment that enables children to engage, play, explore and develop knowledge, an increasing understanding, and new skills.
Enable the Environment
An environment that is enabled for learning is one where children feel safe to explore and provides opportunities for social, emotional and personal development to take place. An enabled environment is not static; it is developed over time by responding to each child’s learning journey as an IEYC unit of learning progresses.
The Big Picture for: Teachers, Children, The Home
Provides teachers, children and the home with an overview of an IEYC unit of learning. It prepares children for new learning experiences, whilst at the same time helps establish connections with previous learning. The Big Picture also provides further opportunities for Capturing Curiosity.
Explore and Express
Provides children with opportunities to engage in Phase Level IEYC learning activities that have been holistically designed around the Learning Strands.
Provides opportunities for children to reflect, share and celebrate what they have learned. Exit Points are often used to share and demonstrate learning with members of the setting community.
The IEYC is designed to support all types of EY educators, including:
• Child Care Professionals
The International Early Years Curriculum (IEYC) is an innovative research-based toolkit, recognising international best practice and the developmental needs of 2-5 year olds. However, the IEYC can be easily extended to include older children in settings and countries where early years education goes beyond the age of ve years. The IEYC is a perfect tool for the transition phase, forging a seamless link between early and formal education.
The IEYC has eight Learning Principles, each conveying a belief considered essential to children’s learning and development. The Learning Principles should form the foundation of all IEYC policy and practice.
The eight Learning Principles are intrinsically linked to a unique IEYC Process of Learning.
The IEYC Process of Learning provides a robust implementation structure, sequencing each IEYC unit of learning ( gure 1). The Process of Learning captures children’s natural curiosity as a starting point and, within an enabling environment, balances child-initiated and teacher-scaffolded provision. Each element of the Process of Learning is linked to the eight Learning Principles, ensuring the IEYC beliefs about children’s learning and development are connected to all practices.
This is the unique 2-5 year old with distinctive learning and development needs.
Links to IEYC Learning Principles 1 and 2:
■ The earliest years of life are important in their own right.
■ Children should be supported to learn and develop at their own unique pace.
This is the exciting and memorable event that launches each IEYC unit of learning and encourages children to think and become motivated about the experiences that will follow.
Links to IEYC Learning Principles 4 and 8:
■ Learning happens when developmentally-appropriate, teacher-scaffolded and child- initiated experiences harness children’s natural curiosity in an enabling environment.
■ Learning should be motivating, engaging and fun, opening up a world of wonder for children where personal interests can ourish.
This is the process of finding out what children already know about a theme and what they are curious to learn about. Children’s interests act as a catalyst to support child-initiated enquiry.
Links to IEYC Learning Principles 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8:
Enable the EnvironmentThis is the process of planning and developing relevant indoor and outdoor learning spaces to create the positive social and emotional climate required for enquiry and learning to take place.
Links to IEYC Learning Principles 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6:
Explore: This is the process when teacher-scaffolded IEYC learning activities and child- initiated exploration are developed through individual and collaborative experiences.
Express: These are the creative opportunities provided to help children demonstrate, share and consider what they have engaged in and learned about.
Each IEYC unit of learning has distinct ‘Phase Level’ activities through which children can Explore and Express their learning.
Phase A Learning Activities: designed with the youngest children in mind (typically for children aged 2-3 years of age).
Phase B Learning Activities: designed to provide more of a challenge (typically for children aged 4-5 years of age).
Links to IEYC Learning Principles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8:
This is the process at the end of an IEYC unit of learning that helps children re ect, share and celebrate what they have learned.
Links to IEYC Learning Principles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8:
This is the process of ongoing assessment, in the form of evaluation and re ection. It involves establishing a learning-link partnership between the home and the setting. This partnership contributes to the process of re ecting on what has been learned, evaluating the progress that has been made, and considering the next steps in the learning journey.
Links to IEYC Learning Principles 6 and 7:
■ Knowledge and skills development lead to an increasing sense of understanding when children are provided with opportunities to explore and express their ideas in multiple ways.
■ Ongoing assessment, in the form of evaluation and re ection, is effective when it involves a learning-link with the home.
This strand focuses on developing personal, social and emotional development. The strand links to the IEYC Personal Goals and the IEYC International Dimension.
Through the IEYC, children have learning experiences that help them develop personal qualities of:
Through IEYC learning activities, children engage in experiences that enable them to:
This strand focuses on developing a broad range of communication skills including language development, early literacy, early mathematics, ICT and computing, expressive arts and creativity. Whist this Learning Strand encompasses early literacy and early mathematics, these learning experiences have been written to complement and support the systematic teaching of literacy and mathematics. For example, whilst some IEYC tasks may support
the development of early reading skills, it is expected that each setting will have their own methods and policies for teaching reading. This also applies to the teaching of writing, spelling and mathematics.
The Learning Strand ‘Communicating’ has seven sub-categories:
■ Communicating through Speaking and Listening
■ Communicating through Reading
■ Communicating through Writing
■ Communicating through Number
■ Communicating through Shape and Measures
■ Communicating through ICT and Computing
■ Communicating through the Expressive Arts and Creativity
This strand focuses on developing the skills of enquiry through exploring people and the world.
This strands focuses on developing a positive attitude to health, self-care and physical activity.
Each of the four Learning Strands has a set of IEYC Learning Outcomes. Each Learning Outcome is broad in nature, re ecting recent research into early childhood development. The Learning Outcomes should be used to support re ective teaching practices and to help guide children’s learning and development. In this way, the Learning Outcomes contribute to the evaluation of and planning for personalised learning. The Learning Strands and Learning Outcomes are deeply embedded into IEYC activities. Combined they are central to each child’s learning journey and should be used to evaluate what children have experienced, learned about, and the progress that has been made. Keeping an ongoing evaluation record of children’s learning and development is crucial in planning appropriate next steps in learning. An example ‘IEYC Learning Journey’ template is included in each IEYC unit of learning; this can be easily adapted to make it context speci c (see Appendix).
The IEYC suggests that by the end of the curriculum (between approximately ve and
six years of age), children will have typically developed knowledge and an increasing understanding of speci c aspects of IEYC learning, and the skills of being able to demonstrate what has been learned in practical ways. The IEYC recognises the uid and dynamic nature of children’s learning and acknowledges that children will not reach developmental milestones at the same time. Whilst the Learning Outcomes are an important part of re ective practices and help guide children’s progression, the IEYC recognises that stimulating engagement and meaningful enquiry are the key to deep learning and achievement. The process of working towards Learning Outcomes takes time and should be an enjoyable and rewarding journey for children. The IEYC Learning Outcomes are broad in nature, encompassing a range of typical development. However, each unique child will not reach developmental milestones at the same time. The IEYC believes that it is more important to focus on: IEYC Learning Principle 2: Children should be supported to learn and develop at their own unique pace, in conjunction with the other seven IEYC Learning Principles, rather than focusing on achievement alone.
Each child will have their own unique learning journey through the IEYC. How children learn and develop will depend on the IEYC units of learning that are implemented, and children’s own interests. Whilst each IEYC unit clearly states what children will experience and learn about in each unit, it is important that child-initiated learning is also taken into consideration. For example, an IEYC activity may include several Learning Strand experiences, but a child may extend this learning because of his/her own enquiry. Similarly, a child may need additional support and this will involve experiences provided in additional Learning Strands. Therefore, records of learning should include both the learning experiences children have gained through planned IEYC activities and children’s spontaneous enquiry. No one piece of evidence is suf cient to evaluate individual learning and development; children’s learning and development should be evaluated over a period of time. Children need opportunities to gain and use knowledge in different contexts and apply skills in new ways before learning becomes secure.
Records of learning can take many forms. For example, digital uploads capturing learning in action, individual learning pro les or commercial tools. Regardless of the system used, the IEYC considers it important that evaluation and assessment of learning should be ongoing and underpinned by IEYC Learning Principle 7: Ongoing assessment, in the form of evaluation and re ection, is effective when it involves a learning-link with the home.
The IEYC believes that children are not passive receptors but are born naturally curious and ready to explore the world, constructing knowledge and developing new skills through experiences and interactions with others. The IEYC has been designed so that teacher- scaffolded Phase Level learning activities help spark children’s imagination, enabling interests and enquiry to ourish through contextualised learning. The IEYC believes this type of enquiry provides greater opportunities for children to learn independently and interdependently, opening up multiple possibilities for personal, social and emotional development.
Step 1: The Entry Point launches each new IEYC unit of learning and should be planned to enable children to explore new experiences in exciting and memorable ways. Each IEYC unit of learning has a suggested Entry Point idea that can be adapted according to children’s developmental needs and the opportunities that exist inside and outside of the setting. The IEYC encourages teachers to be creative and use their own ideas to enhance Entry Point ideas, if they wish to do so. Teachers should consider how resources, the environment, and expertise available to them can be utilised to maximise the Entry Point; making it as exciting, interesting and relevant as possible. Each Entry Point should be planned in a way that makes it possible for teachers to observe and talk to children about what they are particularly curious to explore and learn about. The outcome of the Entry Point should be enthusiasm, emotional engagement and motivation, leaving children with an eagerness to explore and learn more about the new IEYC unit of learning.
Step 2: Capturing Curiosity at the initial stage of IEYC implementation helps strengthen opportunities for child-initiated and personalised learning, which can be further developed over time. Capturing Curiosity involves teachers observing, listening, questioning and re ecting on what children are interested in. Capturing a picture of what children are
curious to explore and learn about is essential to planning a learning environment that enables children to engage, play, explore and extend interests, resulting in deep learning and progression. Whilst Capturing Curiosity has a signi cant purpose at the launch of an IEYC unit of learning, the process should become an ongoing part of implementation, feeding
into teachers’ planning and becoming central to re ective practices. The IEYC suggests that teachers keep records of child-initiated learning experiences and where possible link them to the IEYC Learning Strands. In this way an accurate picture of all learning and development can be gained.
Step 3: Enable the Environment can only be fully achieved when teachers are aware of what children are curious to learn about and the ways in which they enjoy approaching learning experiences. It is important that teachers make best use of available space and develop stimulating learning areas so that they support and deepen children’s enquiry. Teachers’ reflective practices are key to enabling the environment. An environment that is enabled for learning is one where children feel safe to explore, providing opportunities for social, emotional and personal development to take place. An enabled environment is not static; it is developed over time by responding to each child’s learning journey as an IEYC unit of learning progresses. The IEYC believes that to fully Enable the Environment teachers need to be action researchers, gathering evidence of what children are curious about, the learning experiences children engage in, and the provision that will further support learning.
During the initial stages of Enable the Environment, teachers will need to consider:
■ children can play, explore and learn in safety
■ children learn at a pace which is unique to them
■ social, emotional and personal development ourishes
■ learning spaces evolve and are shaped over time, they do not become static ■ there is an ongoing response to children’s interests and needs
■ the best use of indoor and outdoor spaces is considered
Step 4: The Big Picture provides children and the home with an overview of an IEYC unit of learning. It prepares children for new learning experiences, while at the same time helps establish connections with previous learning. The Big Picture also provides further opportunities for Capturing Curiosity.
IEYC ‘Home Letters’ are provided in each IEYC unit to share with families, summarising the learning experiences that children will have. The letters are easily adapted, allowing for setting specific information to be added. Home Letters should be circulated well in advance of launching an IEYC unit of learning in order to maximise the opportunities for forming learning-link partnerships.
Step 5: Explore and Express provides children with opportunities to engage in Phase Level IEYC learning activities that have been holistically designed around the Learning Strands. Each IEYC learning activity is intended to present opportunities for child-initiated enquiry. After exploring an IEYC learning activity, children are encouraged to ‘express’ what they have experienced and learned about. The IEYC suggests ways in which children may like to express their ideas, however children may have their own ideas about how they would like to express their learning.
Along with the IEYC curriculum, Royal Tots Academy also implements The National Curriculum 2013 to achieve the National Standards of Early Childhood Education, to acknowledge the host country and to be accredited by the Department of Education.
Early childhood education is the most fundamental for the child’s development because the next period in a child’s development is determined by the variety of meaningful stimulation given from an early age. From the National Regulation No. 20 Year 2003 states that early childhood education should be prepared in a planned and holistic way to provide good stimulation and invitation for children’s learning, thus developing the various potentials of children and preparing them for their next education journey. Through this Regulation, the National Curriculum 2013 was developed.
The 2013 Early Childhood Curriculum is not a subject based curriculum, but are also grouped according to the areas of a child’s development that will be enhanced when they achieve the Learning Outcome. Areas of Child’s Development are:
A. Religious Values and Moral
Recognize religious values includes saying prayer, being thankful to God, behave honestly, being helpful, courtesy, respect, sportsmanship, knowing the religious holidays, and respect (tolerance) religion of others.
B. Physical Motor
Gross motor skills: has the ability to move the body in a coordinated, flexible, balanced and agile and follow the rules.
Fine motor skills: the ability to use tools to explore and express themselves in a variety of forms to enhance their fine motor muscles.
Health and Safety Behavior: weight, height, head diameter according to age and ability to live in a clean, healthy way, personal hygiene and the environment, and care about safety.
Learning and Troubleshooting: able to solve simple problems in everyday life being flexible and socially acceptable and applying knowledge or experience in a new context.
Logical thinking: recognize differences, classification, and pattern, initiated, planned, and recognize cause and effect.
Thinking symbolic: to know, mentions, and use the symbol numbers 1-10, knowing the alphabet, as well as able to represent the various objects in the form of images.
Understand (receptive) language: to understand the story, orders, rules, and enjoys and appreciate reading.
Expressing Language: being able to ask, answer questions, communicate verbally, and recounting what is known
Literacy: understanding the relationship of form and letter sounds, imitating the form of letters, as well as understand the words in the story.
Just like the IEYC, the Learning Outcomes in the Curriculum 2013 Early Childhood Education are described in competence of Attitudes (spiritual + social), Knowledge, and Skills. The Attitudes, Knowledge, and Skills that a child is expected to learn, in DIKNAS term is called the Core Competence (KI) or we call it the Learning Strands, they are:
Core competency-1 (KI-1) for the core competencies Spiritual Attitude:
This area focus on having understanding of good moral values.
Core competency-2 (KI-2) to the core competencies of Social Attitudes:
This are focus on developing a healthy lifestyle behavior, good curiosity, creative and aesthetic, confident, disciplined, independent, caring, able to work together, to adapt, to be honest, and polite in their interaction with families, teachers, and friends.
Core Competence-3 (KI-3) for the core competencies of Knowledge:
This area focus on recognition and understanding of self, family, friends, educators and / or caregiver, the environment, technology, art and culture at home, neighborhood, and school through observing with the senses; asking/inquiring; gather information; process information, and communicate through play activities.
Core Competence-4 (KI-4) for the core competency Skills.
This area focus on expressing what they know, feel, need, think through language, music, movement, and work productively and creatively, as well as reflecting good morality & behavior.
A set of Attitude, Knowledge, and Skills have been identified for a child to learn under each Learning Strand. These are the Learning Outcomes. The Learning Strands and Learning Outcomes serves as guidelines for the learning that happens at RTA.